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When did you get your hair cut?

Reza didn’t cut his hair. Someone cut it for him.

Causative – have/get + object + past participle

He had/got his hair (object) cut (past participle)

Change to the causative:
She didn’t pierce her nose herself, she had her nose pierced.
He didn’t paint his flat (himself)…he had his flat painted.
We won’t cook our meals…We’ll have our meals cooked
They didn’t repair their washing machine….They had their washing machine repaired
I didn’t alter my suit……. (to take up the trousers/sleeves) – I had my suit altered.
She didn’t clean her flat….She had her flat cleaned.
He doesn’t service his car…He has his car serviced.
I didn’t fix my computer….I had my computer fixed.
You aren’t taking your own blood pressure…You’re having your blood pressure taken.
He didn’t frame that picture himself….he got that picture framed.
He didn’t fill his tooth himself….He got his tooth filled.
She wasn’t cleaning that rug…..She was having that rug cleaned.
We ourselves hadn’t checked the gas installation…We’d had the gas installation checked.
I haven’t revoked my own driving licence…I’ve had my driving licence revoked.
I wouldn’t examine my injury…I’d have my injury examined.

      

   

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Causative verbs Make, Let, Get, Help and Have

Causative verbs cause something else to happen
MAKE: to force someone to do something. – forzar
Make + someone + verb

Did someone make you wear that shirt?
All British schools make their pupils wear a uniform.
My dad made me apologize to the neighbour.
The policeman made me pay a fine.
Craig says he didn’t want to eat the chocolate; a little voice in his head made him eat it.
My mum always made me eat up all my greens (greens = vegetables)

LET: to allow someone to do something. – dar permiso
let + someone + verb

Reza let me play his violin.
Craig let Reza use his new microphone.
Craig wouldn’t let anyone share his bar of dark chocolate.
My boss won’t let me have a day off.
My parents never let me stay out late when I was a kid.
Craig won’t let you say anything bad about Mickey Mouse!

GET: to convince someone to do something – convencer
get + someone + to + verb

      

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VERBS and PREPOSITIONS

A dependent preposition is a preposition that always follows the same expression; for example, we say ‘interested in’ (and NOT X ‘interested on‘ or ‘interested about‘X).

for
Apologise for – He apologised for being late. You can also ‘apologise to someone’
Apply for – I applied for the job but I didn’t get it.
Ask for – How do you ask for a coffee in French?
Pay for (something consumed/something you shouldn’t have done) – Who’s paying for the beers?
I’ll pay for you. = I’ll pay for what you’ve consumed. (NB. “I’ll pay you” has a different meaning. My boss pays me 800 euros a month)
You’ve insulted me in public – you’ll pay for that! ( = I’ll make you pay for what you shouldn’t have done).
Wait for – I’ll wait for you outside the cinema. When was the last time you waited for someone?

about
Worry about – Don’t worry about it! – Don’t worry, be happy! Are you worrying about anything?
Complain about – Have you complained about anything recently?
Argue about something – When was the last time you argued about something? (to argue with someone)
Know about – Craig knows a lot about Mickey Mouse! (But he doesn’t know Mickey Mouse personally. He hasn’t met him, though it is his dream…) Reza knows a lot about music and English grammar.

from
Protect from – This spray should protect you from mosquitoes. Do you use anything to protect your skin from the sun?
Recovered from – To recover from an illness / a hangover / a shock (to get over = to recover from)
Suffer from – I suffer from a bad back. My brother-in-law suffers from a sticky mattress.

in
Get in – It’s hard to get in the local golf club. They don’t accept many new members.
Believe in – Do you believe in life after death?
Specialise in – Reza and Craig specialise in creating podcasts
Succeed in – You have to work hard if you want to succeed in life.

      

   

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A dependent preposition is a preposition that always follows the same expression;
for example, we say ‘interested in’ and not X ‘interested on‘ or ‘interested about‘ X.

AT
good/bad/fantastic/awful…. at – Craig’s bad at tennis. Reza’s awful at time keeping.
mad/angry at* – My girlfriend’s mad/angry at me for forgetting her birthday.

ABOUT
excited about – Is there anything you’re excited about?
sorry for/about – Is there anything you’re sorry for?
crazy/mad about – What food are you crazy about?
un/happy about – She wasn’t happy about her exam result
enthusiastic about – We’re enthusiastic about podcasting

IN
un/interested in – What are you interested in at the moment?
un/successful in – Steve Jobs was extremely successful in business.
deficient in – Peter’s poor diet is deficient in vitamins

OF
sick of / tired of – Craig’s getting a bit tired of Reza’s old jokes
proud of – What have you done in your life that you’re proud of?
afraid/frightened of – What are you afraid/frightened of?
typical of – It’s typical of him to cancel at the last minute
fond of (= keen on) – We’re rather fond of “dulce de leche”
guilty of – The suspect was found guilty of murder.

      


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