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Who Whose Who’s and Whom

To understand how to use ‘who’, ‘whom’ and ‘whose’ you first have to understand the difference between subjects, objects and possessives.

The subject does the action:
She works in a cafe.
He likes cooking.
They bought a new car.

The object receives the action:
Everyone likes him.
I don’t know her.
They didn’t speak to us.

Possessives tell us the person something belongs to:
His new mobile phone is really expensive.
I like his sunglasses, not hers.
We’re selling our flat.



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Farming and Agriculture

Barn – a farm building – granero – Were you born in a barn? – Close the door! Have you ever been to a barn dance?
Cattle – animals like cows and oxen – buey – used for meat or milk

Poultry – chickens and turkeys, etc.
Livestock – ganado
Dairy = made from milk – vaquería (farm), lechería (store, shop), dairy product – producto lacteo
Crops – cosecha, cultivo We had a bad corn crop this year. Maize is an important crop. (sweetcorn, corn on the cob)
Crop rotation – The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Harvest – cosecha, cosechar
‘A bumper harvest’ = a very good harvest
Vintage – Cosecha de vino
To pick – escoger, coger – pick flowers, fruit, grapes. You can pick grapes from a vine which grows in a vinyard.
Drought – sequía – Did you know that Spain imported water by ship in 2008?
Drought in Spain’s northeastern region of Catalonia grew so severe in 2008 that Barcelona began importing water by ship from France.
Soil – tierra – erosion
Fertile land (producing crops)
Fertilize – fertilizar – fertilizer – fertilizante
Irrigation – irrigacíon, reigo
Orchard (fruit trees) an apple orchard, a cherry orchard


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Holidays and Travel

To go on a trip, to go/get away, to take a break for a few days

Airfare (bus fare, train fare, taxi fare etc)
To check in (aisle seat/window seat) – Fly – flight (domestic/international – short/long haul)
fly–flew–flown (to fly – verb / fly–noun = mosca/bragueta) “I have an open flight” – vuelo abierto)
Red-eye flight – early morning/night flight
Boarding pass – On board – a bordo, embarcar
Economy/Business/First class
Upgrade (subir de categoría)
Gate – puerta de embarque (actually means verja, reja, barrera – something you might find in a field or a garden)
Luggage/baggage allowance
Excess baggage
Hand luggage (carry-on)
To take off – to land / a take-off – a landing
Cabin crew – steward(ess) / air hostess / flight attendant
Runway – pista (de aterrizaje)
To taxi “The plane is taxiing before take-off”



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Adjective Prefixes

Words that start with il- generally have the prefix il- (illegal, illogical), but there are exceptions.
Words that begin with ir- tend to have the prefix ir- (irrelevant, irrational, irregular, irresponsible)

SUFFIXES – at the end
People who do jobs: suffixes -er, -ist, -ant, -or, -ee (teacher, artist, shop assistant, professor)
Adjective suffixes: -ful, -less, -able, -ous, -ive. -itive, -y, -ible (helpful, useless, bossy)
Noun suffixes: -tion, -ment, -ness, -ity, -ance, -ence, -ship (education, clarity, friendship)

PREFIXES – at the start
1. Negative prefixes (mainly used for adjectives, but can be for verbs and nouns): un-, in-, -im, -dis, -ir, -il (untrue, disloyal, illogical)
2. Prefixes that give a specific meaning: anti- V pro-, down- V up-, hyper- V hypo-, pre- V post-, V micro- V macro-, sub- V supra-, inter-, V intra, multi-, V mono-, hetero- V homo-, under- V over-, trans-, ultra, semi-, non-, mini-, super- mega-…
(pro-government V anti-government, pre-war V post-war, mega-city, mini-skirt, international, ultra-modern, transatlantic, semi-skimmed..)


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