Farming and Agriculture
Barn – a farm building – granero – Were you born in a barn? – Close the
door! Have you ever been to a barn dance?
Cattle – animals like cows and oxen – buey – used for meat or milk
Poultry – chickens and turkeys, etc.
Livestock – ganado
Dairy = made from milk – vaquería (farm), lechería (store, shop), dairy
product – producto lacteo
Crops – cosecha, cultivo We had a bad corn crop this year. Maize is an
important crop. (sweetcorn, corn on the cob)
Crop rotation – The practice of rotating use of different fields from
crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Harvest – cosecha, cosechar
‘A bumper harvest’ = a very good harvest
Vintage – Cosecha de vino
To pick – escoger, coger – pick flowers, fruit, grapes. You can pick
grapes from a vine which grows in a vinyard.
Drought – sequía – Did you know that Spain imported water by ship in
Drought in Spain’s northeastern region of Catalonia grew so severe in
2008 that Barcelona began importing water by ship from France.
Soil – tierra – erosion
Fertile land (producing crops)
Fertilize – fertilizar – fertilizer – fertilizante
Irrigation – irrigacíon, reigo
Orchard (fruit trees) an apple orchard, a cherry orchard
Words that start with il- generally have the prefix il- (illegal,
illogical), but there are exceptions.
Words that begin with ir- tend to have the prefix ir- (irrelevant,
irrational, irregular, irresponsible)
SUFFIXES – at the end
People who do jobs: suffixes -er, -ist, -ant, -or, -ee (teacher, artist,
shop assistant, professor)
Adjective suffixes: -ful, -less, -able, -ous, -ive. -itive, -y, -ible (helpful,
Noun suffixes: -tion, -ment, -ness, -ity, -ance, -ence, -ship (education,
PREFIXES – at the start
1. Negative prefixes (mainly used for adjectives, but can be for verbs
and nouns): un-, in-, -im, -dis, -ir, -il (untrue, disloyal, illogical)
2. Prefixes that give a specific meaning: anti- V pro-, down- V up-,
hyper- V hypo-, pre- V post-, V micro- V macro-, sub- V supra-, inter-,
V intra, multi-, V mono-, hetero- V homo-, under- V over-, trans-,
ultra, semi-, non-, mini-, super- mega-…
(pro-government V anti-government, pre-war V post-war, mega-city, mini-skirt,
international, ultra-modern, transatlantic, semi-skimmed..)