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Grammar: THE ARTICLE – a, an, the, zero


Use a and an with single countable nouns.
A countable noun is something that you can count. Like a hot potato. You can say one plate, two plates, three plates. Plate has a plural form so it is countable. You can add an ‘s’ to the noun.
We use ‘a’ and ‘an’ with countable nouns.
Use an with a vowel SOUND: a university, a uniform, a European, a Euro.
Use ‘an’ when the word begins with a vowel SOUND – an hour, for example.
Don’t put an extra sound before consonant clusters; for example, a student (not an student)
a/an is the indefinite article which means it’s not specific. Use it when you talk about things in general: “Let’s take a taxi” (any taxi)
Use a/an when you talk about something for the first time:

“I bought a new laptop last week.”
“The laptop has a lovely screen.”

a = per : an (per) hour, a (per) kilo, $50 a (per) person
Use a in some expressions such as: a few, a little

I have few friends (negative – not many friends) / a have a few friends (I’ve got some friends)
I have little time (negative – I don’t have much time, I probably won’t be able to help you) / I have a little time (I can help you. I have some time)
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We’re waiting for Reza. Do you know where he is?
Has he contacted you?

“He might be on the way.” – “He could be, yeah.”
“Where do you think he is?” – “He might be on the way. It’s raining in Valencia, so the traffic lights might not be working.”
“He could be on the bus.”
“He may be having coffee with an attractive young Spanish girl.”
“He’s teaching! He can’t be having coffee because I know he’s teaching now in the British COuncil. Unfortunately, he can’t be with us today.”

Modal verbs COULD BE a difficult topic!

Most modal verbs are not too difficult when used in the present.
Some students question the difference between might and could.
Students at a lower level shouldn’t ‘sweat over’ (worry about) the difference between might and could, or ‘get headaches’ (don’t worry about it).
Might and could are often interchangeable for probability.
Modal verbs are not usually put together in course books. They are taught in groups, for example you might see ‘must’ and ‘can’t’ together or ‘might’ and ‘could’.

“Reza must be in class now.” (Hay una posibilidad muy alta – 95%)
“He should be in class now.” (Reza debería estar en clase ahora.)
“He should be here by now.” (expressing surprise and concern) “Why isn’t he here?”
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Grammar: Infinitives – be going, have gone etc.

Reza is going to talk about infinitives – “to talk” is an infinitive.
An infinitive is the base form of the verb with ‘to’ before it: to go, to write, to read, to love, to be (or not to be!), to drink, to be merry
Some structures in English require an infinitive with ‘to’, and some require an infinitive without ‘to’ (the base form).
“Reza’s going to the bank…….to withdraw some money.” (to withdraw = to take out – sacar)
This is the infinitive of purpose. Why is Reza going to the bank? What’s the reason? – to withdraw some money.
“Tomorrow I want….to publish a podcast.” After the verb ‘want’ use an infinitive with ‘to’ – I want TO PUBLISH
“I’m too fat. I really must….lose weight / do more exercise.”

MUST + base form (lose / do) the infinitive WITHOUT ‘TO’.
You can also use nouns or noun phrases after these structures: “I want…….more chocolate.”, for example.
Alfred Lord Tennyson said, “It’s better to have loved and (have) lost than never to have loved at all.”
This is an example of the perfect infinitive: TO + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE (to have loved / to have lost)
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In this episode: Job Interviews in English and work vocabulary

job – work – career – what’s the difference?
‘Job’ is a countable noun (I have two jobs) ‘Work’ is usually uncountable (I have a lot of work)
You can use ‘work’ as a countable noun in art: “The works of Pablo Picasso”
‘career’ is a false friend. “I’m studying/doing a degree”, “I’m studying art”
You start your career AFTER you finish studying
A career is often long-term. Not flipping burgers at McDonalds!
to apply for a job – to complete an application form.
CV (UK) – resume (US)
perks / fringe benefits = beneficios (adicionales)
prospects – What are my prospects?
to get promoted – to promote = promover, ascender (opposite=demoted)
reference = referencia (job reference/character reference)
experience = experiencia
qualifications = requisitos/calificación
contract – contrato
hours – horario – What will my hours be?

How to pass a job interview in EnglishHow to pass a job interview in English.
Este producto le ayudará a preparar su entrevista de trabajo en inglés, tanto si la misma es presencial o se realiza a través de Skype u otro medio.


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