Gramática: For, During and While

- How to use during
During is a preposition which is used before a noun (during + noun) to say when something happens. It does not tell us how long it happened.
For example:
  "Nobody spoke during the meeting."
  "We don’t get any snow here in Valencia during the winter."
  "During my childhood I lived on a farm."
- How to use while

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  -Gramática: Gerunds and infinitives

“It started to rain” and “it started raining” are both correct.
Reza stopped smoking years ago. (he stopped the activity of smoking)
Reza was walking down the road when he stopped to pick up a coin (una moneda). (He stopped doing one thing – walking down the road – to do another thing – pick up a coin)
Reza and Craig stopped podcasting to have a cup of tea.

MAKE (obligar/forzer) – to make someone do something
My teacher made me do my homework again.
Reza made me sing the Mickey Mouse song.
LET (dejar/dar permiso) – Craig lets Reza say many silly things in the podcast.
ALLOW – Allow me to ask a question.
PERMIT – Craig permits Reza to say silly things.
LOVE – “Craig loves/likes to drink coffee” or “Craig loves/likes drinking coffee.”
FORGET – I forgot to close the door. (think about something BEFORE it happens)
I forgot giving John the money. (I have no memory of something that ALREADY happpened.
REMEMBER – I remember turning off the gas.

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  Gramática: More gerunds and infinitives

decide (decidir) – Reza decided to go out for the day
avoid (evitar) – I avoided studying for the IELTS exam
finish (terminar) – Reza finished eating and left the restaurant.
feel like (tener ganas hacer algo) – Reza feels like sleeping
forget (olvidarse) – If you have forgotten ‘forget’, listen again to episode 14.
promise (prometer) – I promise to help you
agree (estar de acuerdo) – We agreed to stop fighting and become friends. (¡OJO! – We agreed ON doing something)
enjoy (disfrutar) – Reza enjoys doing these podcasts. – I enjoyed myself at the party.
fancy (apetecer) – What do you fancy doing tonight? Reza fancies having a gin and tonic.
refuse (rechazar) – I refuse to give you the money.
offer (ofrecer) – He offered to help me.

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  Gramática: Reported speech reported-speech

Present simple – past simple “I’m hungry” Craig said that he was hungry
Present continuous – Past continuous “Reza’s sitting opposite me” – Craig said that Reza was sitting opposite to him.
Present perfect simple – Past perfect simple – “I’ve made the tea.” – Craig said that he had made the tea.
Present perfect continuous – Past perfect continuous “I’ve been teaching English for 20 years.” – Craig said that he had been teaching English for 20 years.
Past simple – past perfect – “I had a really bad day yesterday.” – Craig said that he had had (he’d had) a bad day.
Past perfect – Past perfect “I had already had breakfast when you arrived this morning.” – NO CHANGE – Craig said that he had already had breakfast when I arrived this morning.
Past perfect continuous – Past perfect continuous – “I’d already been teaching for five years when I came to Valencia.” NO CHANGE – Craig said that he’d already been teaching for five years when I came to Valencia.

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